Assistant Professor in Ophthalmic Center, Mansoura University,
Mansoura Medicine Hospital,
Age related macular degeneration (ARMD) is one of the causes of visual loss worldwide and increasing in prevalence. The pathophysiology of ARMD is complex. Drusen is initiated by inflammatory cells and activated by complement formation while the cause of pigment alteration is still unclear. Thyroid hormones regulate different visual functions. Human retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells express thyroid hormone receptors that are target for thyroid hormone. Suppression of thyroid hormone preserves cone photoreceptors in mouse with retinal degeneration. While, administration of active thyroid hormone deteriorates cones. Thyroid dysfunctions are common, with prevalence up to 10%. Thyroid disorders are associated with alterations in lipid levels, atherosclerosis, and hypertension which are predisposing factors for ARMD development. Some studies have shown that the use of thyroid hormones is associated with AMD while another study did not establish such relationship. The purpose of the special issue is to determine the relation between thyroid disorders and thyroid hormones and ARMD.