Cancer is mysterious pathology. Although so many studies and considerable advances in cancer pathogenesis comprehension, diagnosis and treatment, it is still difficult to understand how it occurs and how can be prevented and eliminated. The various spots it can emerge and the complex interaction with other cells in cancer medium contribute to that. However, from a decade to now, new immunotherapeutic procedures have gained more attention, mainly because their promising results. New immune cells have been discovered and other, which has not had much importance, has now their values being recognized gradually. Therefore, this special issue aims to introduce and discuss new immunotherapies methodologies which are demonstrating great potential for solid cancers treatment. Basic and clinical studies will be demonstrated, and new possibilities for drug development can be suggested and tested.
Biomarkers for cancer occurrence and for clinical establishment and prognosis are also on focus, showing the importance for the application of therapeutic approaches during the initial stages of cancer progression. Also, preventive measures will be encouraged, such as the development of new vaccines approaches or the improvement of existing ones. Cancer pathogenesis, paying special attention to the immunologic aspects, will be discussed and new pathways will be revealed. New interactions between cytokines and receptors as well as new roles may be suggested, and the same may occurs for immune and non-immune cells. Gradually, the interactions between these two types of cells have being revealed and demonstrated new immunotherapeutic possibilities due to the gain on understanding of cancer pathogenesis. Knowledge about recent immune cell subtypes functions may be deepened, as well as their interaction with other immune cells. At last, the evaluation of TLR multiple roles, chemokines targets, non-immune obscured functions and the double roles of immune cells may be also object of studies and reviews, and new hypothesis may be drawn.